Working Papers

The AVPA Working Paper Series is a compilation of originally authored works that reflect on the challenges and opportunities in the context of Africa’s vaccine production and innovation ecosystem.

Regionalizing Pharmaceutical Production and Innovation


In this paper, we address the question of successful establishment of regional production facilities in LMICs from both a design and a management perspective. Given the importance and urgency of current initiatives, we take as a starting point that replicating production facilities in each and every country might be inefficient and costly, and call for resources that currently do not exist, and that a systematic approach to creating a network of supply on the continent would be preferable.

The paper begins with a discussion on regionalizing production from a development and health perspective. It then proceeds to discuss the variety of models available to choose from, highlighting questions of technology, financing and other production incentives. In its final section, it discusses governance issues, and the political and policy decisions that may effectively influence the regionalization of pharmaceutical production.

Vaccine Indemnification and Access to Medicines: An Overview of Existing Approaches


This paper was originally prepared in the summer of 2022 as a background paper for the AVPA Initiative. This version has not been copy-edited. All comments and suggestions should be addressed to the author.

Market Shaping and Market Access in the Global Vaccines Market: Approaches for the Future


This paper looks at market access and market shaping in the interest of public health in a post-COVID world. It starts out with a detailed case study of Gavi’s market shaping (presented in a snapshot over 20 years), highlighting the key successes in: (i) introducing new vaccines in Gavi-eligible countries successively, (ii) expanding the number of suppliers, and (iii) bringing down prices for immunization in LMICs. Looking closely at how these successes were facilitated, the paper identifies a number of ‘behind-the-scenes’ factors that helped Gavi achieve these successes in different vaccine categories.